The acceptor, whom we will refer to below as the non-breaching party, is entitled to compensation (an allowance of money) if necessary to make it complete if the other party has breached the contract, unless the contract itself or other circumstances suspend or satisfy this right. Damages refer to money paid from one side to the other; It is a legal remedy. For historical and political reasons in the development of the English legal system, the courts could originally only award monetary compensation. If an applicant wanted anything other than money, a separate justice system had to be used. Courtrooms and hearings were separate. This real separation is long gone, but the distinction is still recognized; A judge may be described as “sitting in the law” or “sitting in equity,” or a case may involve both monetary claims and actions. We are seeking compensation for damages first. An injunction is the second type of equitable relief available in the contract (it is also available in tort liability). It is a court order that orders a person to refrain from doing what they should not do. For example, if an employer has a valid non-compete obligation with an employee and the employee nevertheless agrees to compete with his former employer in breach of this contract, a court may order (issue an injunction) ordering the former employee to terminate that competition. A person`s promise not to do something—not to compete in this example—is called a negative covenant (a covenant is a promise in a contract, even a contract). Or if the seller promises to give the buyer the right of first refusal for a single piece of land or artwork, but the seller offers the thing to a third party in violation of a written promise, a court may prohibit the seller from selling it to the third party. If a person violates a restraining order, they can be held in contempt of court and imprisoned for a period of time.
Madison Square Garden v. Carnera Corporation, Section 16.6.3 “Injunctions and Negative Clauses,” is a classic case involving breach of contract injunctions. The assessment of the interest in restitution can be problematic. Courts have considerable discretion in deciding either the cost of hiring another person to perform the work performed by the non-infringing party (usually the market price of the service) or the value added to the aggrieved party`s property as a result of the plaintiff`s performance. Calhoun, the contractor, agreed to build ten fences around Arlene`s area at a market price of $25,000. After building three, Calhoun provided services that would cost $7,500 in market value. Let us assume that it increases the value of the Arlene site by $8,000. If Arlene resigns, there are two criteria for Calhoun`s restitution interest: $8,000, the value by which the property was improved, or $7,500, the amount it would have cost Arlene to hire someone else to do the job. The measure used depends on who terminated the contract and why. In some cases, improved valuation of goods or assets could result in an award that far exceeds the market price for the service.
In such cases, the smallest measure is used. For a physician performing life-saving surgeries on a patient, reimbursement would only recover the market value of medical services – not the monetary value of the patient`s life. There are three distinct categories of remedies in common law systems. The remedy originates in the English courts and takes the form of a monetary payment to the victim, commonly referred to as damages or repletive. The purpose of compensation is to repair the harm caused to the victim by a party in violation. In the history of the English legal system, the remedy existed only in the form of financial compensation, and the victim must therefore apply to a separate system if he or she wishes other forms of compensation. Although courtrooms and proceedings have been integrated, the distinction between monetary claims and measures still exists.  Non-monetary compensation refers to the second category of judicial remedies, equitable remedies. This type of action stems from the equitable jurisdiction developed by the English Court of Chancery and the Court of Exchequer. Declaratory actions are the third category of judicial remedies.
Unlike the other two categories, declaratory actions generally involve a court determining how the law is to be applied to certain facts without the parties ordering it.  Courts provide reasons for deciding many types of issues, including whether a person has legal status, who owns property, whether a law has a particular meaning, or what rights exist under a contract.  While these are three basic categories of common law remedies, there are also a handful of others (such as the Reformation and the Resignation, both of which relate to treaties whose terms must be rewritten or reversed). There are several restrictions on an aggrieved party`s right to obtain contractual remedies for infringement, in addition to the restrictions fairly agreed upon by the parties. The damage suffered by the non-breaching party must be reasonably foreseeable. The non-offending party must make reasonable efforts to mitigate the damage, otherwise the amount awarded will be reduced by the damage that could have been avoided. The party claiming damages must be able to indicate, within reasonable limits, the amount of harm it suffered as a result of the breach.